Architecture is regarded as the process and also the result of planning, designing, and constructing any sort of building or other varied structures. In the material form of buildings, architectural work is often regarded as cultural symbols and also as products of art. Historical civilizations are often recognized with their remaining architectural achievements.
Architecture is the art and technique of designing and building when differentiated from the skills associated with construction. The practice of architecture is usually implemented to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and therefore it serves both functional and artistic ends.
Different Kinds of Architecture
The different kinds of architecture are as follows:
Victorian: The Victorian Era (mid to late 19th Century) marks a return of architectural styles like Gothic Revival, Tudor, and Romanesque. It also comprises influences from Asia and also the Middle East. During the industrial revolution, many houses were built in the Victorian style.
Key features of this style include ‘Dollhouse’ effect with detailed trim, sash windows, bay windows, asymmetrical shape, imposing 2-3 stories, a steep Mansard roof, wrap-around porches along with bright colors. You can see the architectural style in many of the homes in the UK, the US, and Australia.
Islamic: Starting in the Middle East in the 7th-century Islamic architecture diversifies greatly depending on the area such as Persia North Africa and Spain. A Mosque is the greatest example of Islamic styles that includes pointed arches, domes and also courtyards. The decoration on flat surfaces usually takes priority as the Koran prohibits three-dimensional representations.
Key features of this architectural style include the horseshoe arch, geometric designs, along with more focus on the included spaces and interior preferably than the exterior, perforated screens. You can witness his style in Hui Mosque in China.
Tudor: Tudor architecture is the concluding style from the medieval period in England between the period 1400s-1600. While the Tudor Arch or the Four-Centred Arch is the characteristic feature, the majority of the people would remember the timber-framed houses of the Tudor era. Key features of this type of architecture include thatched roof, masonry chimneys, casement windows (diamond-shaped glass panels with lead castings), elaborate doorways. You can see it Anne Hathaway’s cottage, Warwickshire and also in England.
Romanesque: Also known as Norman Architecture, this architectural style it developed across Europe in the late 10th Century. The most famous feature of this style is the rounded arch, which is usually found in the Roman-style churches and is considered as the principal survivors of this period. Key features of this style include rounded arches, stylized floral and foliage stone decorations, repetitive rows of round-headed arches, and cable frames around doors in a style of twisted rope.
You can witness this style in Porto Cathedral in Portugal.
Baroque: Beginning in the late 16th century in Italy, Baroque was a variation from the formal Romanesque style. It was more emotive, ‘showy’ and also aimed to attract to the senses. As an integral part of the Counter-Reformation, this style of architecture is an attempt to celebrate the Catholic state. Key features of this style include broken pediments, ‘broken’ at their apex, often with a cresting ornament that is placed in the center, elegant ornamentation, paired columns along with convex and concave walls. You can witness this style in the Palace of Versailles.
Bauhaus: Usually, an art school in Germany during the early period of the 1900s. The Bauhaus movement held this idea that all art and technology would be unified under the idea of simplistic design and mass-production. Rejecting decorative details the designs favors functional aspects.
Flat roofs and cubic shapes are the keys to this style of architecture. The Bauhaus principles of cubic shapes and angles are visible in the modernist design clearly. A key feature of this style includes cubic shapes, along with colors like red, blue and yellow, open floor plans, steel frames, flat roofs, glass curtain walls. You can see this style in Dessau, Germany.
Neo-classical: Neo-classicism style developed in the mid 18th Century. This aimed to bring back dignity and beauty to architecture. The inspiration derived from the classic styles of ancient Greek, Roman buildings and design. Simplicity and symmetry were the core values of this style. Key features of this style include the beauty of scale, excessive use of columns, blank walls, large buildings, clean lines, and free-standing columns. You can see this style in Casino Marino, in Malahide.
Gothic: Emerging in the mid 12th Century, Gothic architecture acquired flourishes and features from previous styles and combined them all together. A bit more decorative than the classical styles- the walls were thinner, columns more slender, windows decorated with stained glass and designed so to draw the eye upwards.
Key features of this style include height and beauty, pointed arches, vaulted ceilings along with light and airy buildings.
You can witness this style in Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris.
Renaissance: Inspired by classical styles, the Renaissance style emerged in Italy during the 15th Century and was distinguished by harmony, simplicity, and strength. The designs were meant to exhibit the elegance and also ideals of domestic life. The clues were taken from the Roman ruins. Key features of this style include square buildings, classical motifs, flat ceilings, arches and domes, enclosed courtyards, Roman-type columns and arcades of vaulted bays. You can see this style in St Peter’s Basilica, Rome.
Modernist: Modernism is a cover term provided to a movement at the beginning of the 20th Century and ]this can also include styles like Futurism, post-modern and also new classical. The architectural were meant to be free of unnecessary detail, and the focus was on simplicity. There is a good display of the materials used rather than concealing them.
Key features of this style include lack of the decorative, use of modern materials, low buildings, use of sun and shading for human comfort, interaction with interior and exterior spaces along with the use of glass and natural light. You can witness this style in the Guggenheim Gallery in New York.
Which is the best country to get an MS in Architecture?
Barcelona is regarded as the best place for architecture. This historical city has some of the most beautiful structures built in Gaudi style. The Museu Picasso displays Picasso’s early artwork and several other famous paintings. Catalan and Spanish art are also famous in this city.
London has made massive contributions in the field of art and architecture. The British Museum displays over eight million objects that cover all of human history. The National Gallery has an assorted collection of Western painting. The Design Museum may be of particular interest to art and architecture students as this focuses on design in all aspects that includes architecture. London has a number of notable sites which includes the Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, and the Queen’s House.
Paris is also considered as an ideal study abroad location for art and architecture students. From antiquities to Western European paintings, The Musée du Louvre has everything covered. So, the place is most sought-after by the students interested in this domain. The museum itself is regarded as an architectural wonder, a perfect combination of classicism and a large modern glass pyramid. Paris highlights a diversity of architectural styles which makes it a perfect destination for students who wish to learn architecture.
Roman architecture is recognized globally for its grandeur and unique nature. Rome comprises of some of the most important structures in architectural history. The Colosseum, Roman Forum and Pantheo are phenomenal work and is regarded as a milestone in the field of architecture. Vatican City, located within Rome’s limits features St. Peter’s Basilica, is a Late Renaissance masterpiece. Within Rome, there are a series of museums including treasures like Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel and Raphael’s ‘School of Athens. The oldest national museum in the world, the Capitoline Museums, is always considered as a must-visit destination for art and architecture students.
Other popular places include,
- Tokyo, Japan
- Athens, Greece
- Berlin, Germany
- Moscow, Russia
- Beijing, China
- Mexico City, Mexico
What are the best universities for an MS in Architecture?
The best universities for an MS in architecture are as follows:
1. Harvard University | Master in Architecture II Boston, USA
2. TU Delft | The Berlage Post-master in Architecture and Urban Design, Delft, The Netherlands
3. MIT | Master of Science in Architecture and Urbanism, Boston, USA
4. ETSAM + ETH Zurich | Master in Collective Housing, Madrid, Spain
5. Tsinghua University | Master in Architecture, Beijing, China
6. University College London | Architectural Design March, London, UK
7. Columbia University | Master of Science Degree in Advanced Architectural Design, New York, USA
8. University of California, Berkeley | Master of Sciences in Architecture, California, USA
9. AA Architectural Association | March in Architecture & Urbanism, London, UK
10. Politécnico de Milano | Master Architecture and Urban Design, Milan, Italy
Eligibility Requirements For an MS in Architecture
- Statement of Purpose – Your academic or professional background might contribute to your studies in architecture. You need to present introductory ideas on how you would like to focus your research project, including the relationship of past training and experience to a proposed research agenda and future practice, and any other information that you think will be helpful to the admissions committee.
- Letter of Recommendation -You need to provide the names and contact information of three persons who are in a position to provide a recommendation that talks about your potential for success in a graduate program. A combination of academic and professional recommendations is preferred. Usually, 2-3 LORs are required.
- Resume– A professional resume showcasing your academic background, achievements, training, workshops, certification and other relevant details is required.
- GRE– For countries like USA and Canada, you need to submit your GRE scores. The score varies in different universities. So, check the university website to know more about the required scores. No other country requires GRE for an MS in architecture.
- Language proficiency tests– TOEFL – 90 /IELTS – 6.5
- Work experience– 1-year work exp at least one year of professional experience related to the built environment in design, engineering, business or government.
- Portfolio – A portfolio that demonstrates the candidate’s undergraduate and professional work such as practice, research, publications, and projects. It must show the breadth, depth, quality, and diversity of the candidate’s work.
Usually, it depends on the admission committee of each university to determine whether you need a masters in architecture without a bachelors in the same domain. But most of the universities prefer the candidate to have prior knowledge about this domain along with some work experience in the same field.
How long does it take to earn an MS in Architecture?
The duration of an MS in architecture in different countries are:
- UK: 1 year
- US: 2 years
- Australia: 2 years
- Canada: 2 years
- Germany: 1.5- 2 years
- Singapore: 1-2 years
- New Zealand: 1.5-2 years
What are the different types of subjects that a student will have to study in an MS in Architecture program?
Some of the common subjects in an MS in Architecture program include-
- History of Architecture and Design
- Contemporary Architecture
- Visual Thinking
- Building Construction
- Arch and Design Material Processes
- Architecture Studio
- Making and Modelling
- Structural engineering
- Sustainable Systems
- Construction and Evaluation
- Interdisciplinary Art and Design
- Architectural Design
- History of Architecture
- Building Science and Technology
- Environmental Systems
What are the different types of jobs available for an architect?
Architect: An architect is an individual responsible for planning, designing, and reviewing the construction of buildings. An architect creates the look, shape, and function of a building. They have a responsibility to assure that buildings are safe and legally compliant.
Interior Designer: Interior designers plan and monitor the design and decoration of the inside of buildings stressing an importance on the aesthetic beauty and functions of interior spaces. Interior designers are also responsible for color schemes and selecting decorative items like furniture, soft furnishing, lighting along with artwork lighting.
Interior Architect: Interior architects are known for designing the function of the interior spaces of buildings in order to meet the needs of the proposed users. Interior architects assess all aspects from the placement of walls to the positioning of doors, windows, and light fittings walls. Interior architects are also entrusted with the responsibility of ensuring that interiors are safe and also legally compliant.
Landscape Architect/Designer: Landscape architects plan, design, create and manage beautiful, functional spaces landscapes within the surroundings we live and also work in. Job responsibilities include planning the locations of buildings, walkways, roads, and creating public parks, gardens, playgrounds, and residential areas and more.
Planners: Planners are known for the management and development of towns, cities and other rural areas. Other job roles include Town Planner and Urban Planner depending on your area of focus. It is helpful in creating communities, accommodate population growth and revitalize physical facilities among other things.
Project Manager: A project manager is responsible for ensuring that all projects run smoothly. It must include all areas like budgeting and scheduling client contracts. Project managers are accountable for ensuring that the project is completed as per the client’s instructions and specifications.
ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTER/CAD TECHNICIAN: Architectural drafters provide the technical drawings which are required to construct the designed buildings and spaces.
Model Makers: Model Makers can visualize the ideas of architects, landscape architects, and planners by developing 3D models. Model Makers are also known as Visualisation and Architectural Renderers.
Architectural Engineer: Architectural engineers diminish the gap between architects and engineers. Architectural engineers explore the ways to combine the construction, design, and operation of a building by creating efficient structures and building systems, such as structural, electrical, lighting, acoustics, mechanical, ventilation, sustainability, and fire protection to ensure that designs meet the intended function and safety requirements.
Surveyor: Surveyors offer professional advice on property and construction. Their role includes creating detailed reports on building surveys. Surveyors are also responsible for valuing the worth of properties by distinguishing defects along with advising on repair and maintenance.
What is the global job market like for architects?
According to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, architects can expect growth at a rate of approximately 4 percent by the year 2024, Also, according to the U.S. News & World Report, for the year 2017, the percent of architects without a job was just 1.9 percent. The job growth remains steady as does the building labor market. In the annual Best Jobs listing by US NEWS, last year, architect ranked as No. 4 in Best Engineering Jobs and No. 22 in Best STEM Jobs. The managing director of architectural firm Gensler, Jordan Goldstein, highlighted the role that digitalization has recently played in architecture.
The growing use of digital printing, architects, are instantly able to study the 3-D implications of design ideas and work on a project seamlessly. It is a significant leap over the more conventional aspects of the design process and facilitates construction.
As technology and innovation continue to evolve the industry, more job opportunities that require precision skills and talent will arise. There are several factors kindling demand for architects. Mostly, the market shows larger global trends, like worsening school buildings on campuses across the country, will either need to be renovated or replaced. Also, more healthcare facilities will be built to support an aging population who need medical treatment. Moreover, architects who can create sustainable designs, which help address climate change issues are also in demand.
How much can architects earn around the world?
Among their best nine countries to earn a high-paying landscape architecture salary are Canada (mid-range salaries ranging from $80,000 to $100,000 CAD), the United States ($77,000 USD), Australia (between $41,943 and $84,447 AUD), UAE (AED 216,000 to 264,000), Singapore ($78,000), Switzerland (CHF 61,148 per year), …
Top Companies for Architects
- Gensler (USA), Number of employed architects: 2570
- Nikken Sekkei (Japan), Number of employed architects: 1796
- AECOM (USA), Number of employed architects: 1491
- Perkins+Will (USA), Number of employed architects: 1140
- HDR (USA), Number of employed architects: 1072
- IBI Group (Canada), Number of employed architects: 851
- Woods Bagot (Australia), Number of employed architects: 840
- HOK (USA), Number of employed architects: 821
- Aedas (China), Number of employed architects: 788
- DP Architects (Singapore), Number of employed architects: 767
- Sweco Sweden, Number of employed architects: 700
- HKS (USA), Number of employed architects: 685
- White Arkitekter (Sweden), Number of employed architects: 681
- Foster + Partners (UK), Number of employed architects: 671
- Perkins Eastman (USA), Number of employed architects: 658
- Jacobs (USA), Number of employed architects: 636
- Junglim Architecture (South Korea), Number of employed architects: 596
- Kunwon (South Korea), Number of employed architects: 530
- Stantec (Canada), Number of employed architects: 530
- SmithGroupJJR (USA), Number of employed architects: 522
Would it be more lucrative for an architect to work alone?
Most of the architects are usually employed by organizations like cooperative architectural firms, developers, hotel chains, healthcare agencies, and governmental agencies.
A few of these experts look out on their own after a few years of practice and have acquired their licensure. You have to understand it is a lengthy process to become licensed; it usually involves a professional degree, an internship of at least 3-4 years and several exams. A lot of people are put off by the effort and cost. Also, some practicing professionals never become registered their whole lives.
It is not suitable to be a self-employed architect without the licensure. It is also illegal to practice without the supervision of an architect or equivalent if you are not one yourself. So, there is some amount of difficulty in setting up your own practice/self employed if you are not able to.
Also, there is a risky business side if you are planning to work as a self-employed individual. Being good at your trade and also having all the required skills do not guarantee you a successful business model. Even some accomplished/famous architect is not a good businessman, and they find it difficult to work alone. So, to sum up, if you are not sure about your business skills, and also do not see it challenging to acquire a license, it is advised to work under an architectural firm.